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History of smart textiles: Electricity being combined with clothing is not particularly new. Since then developments in automatic embedding of fiber optics into fabrics, use of GSR sensors linked to Bluetooth, infra red digital displays and the development of sensor based conductive yarn, conductive rubber and conductive ink, and shape memory materials are all contributing to new ways of thinking about and potential uses of smart textiles for more detail take a look at Syduzzaman et al.

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Contexts of use, monitoring: Key applications found in the literature are health, safety, military defence, sports tracking and monitoring systems and fashion; and more recently super smart textiles are being further developed, driven by needs within space travel, sports etc. According to Martin et al.

Are monitoring forms of activity generated through the clothing a form of touch, since they touch the body of the wearer? Are they communicating through touch, since they are sensing different bodily changes and adapting or responding accordingly? Soundbrenner, worn on the wrist or upper arm, helps you feel the beat and rhythm of music. These applications offer new material forms for artists and designers, and offer opportunities for new forms of touch-based interaction with art pieces.

Context of use, disability : e-textiles have often been used for their visual properties, but are less understood in terms of their tactile qualities Giles and Van der Linden, Indeed the monitoring applications focus less on the tactile qualities of the fabric and more on the sensing capabilities, and displays or communication of sensor output, for example linked to visual forms of feedback through LEDs.

Much of this research is not centrally related to touch — yet for the visually impaired the touch sensory system is critical. In the current landscape of smooth touchscreen technology then, smart textiles seem to have much to offer for the visually impaired. This form of performance enables visually impaired and sighted audiences to have a shared experience through tactile forms of interaction.

In parts of the fashion industry the focus — rather than monitoring — has been on connecting people through textiles e. The hugshirt, developed by Rosella and Genz in , won an award and was launched in , then updated in It was designed — not to replace hugs — but to enable people to send hugs to one another when they were away at work or not co-present. These two examples offer different ways of connecting — one is a more intimate expression of emotion for someone else, the other a shared experience aiming to enhance engagement — in this case through some kind of immersion in the football game.

Both offer explicit ways of enhancing touch interaction, yet also raise issues about the implications for human-human touch contact.

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The symbolic becomes more questionable if it develops to increasingly replace and ultimately threaten commonplace human-human touch. The use and control of the experience is jointly negotiated and becomes part of the emotional engagement between those two people. How difficult would it be to maintain control of both sending and receiving touch communications? Anne Cranny-Francis chapter on Smart Textiles raised a number of issues around touch, and led me to think more about some key questions that smart textiles give rise to in the context of InTouch.

In this case, the technology is extending not replacing touch communication. Does this mean that human proximity will lessen?

The Smart Fabric Of The Future?

In thinking specifically about smart textiles, the thoughts here link into broader questions raised about what we mean by communication — with whom? With what? The lamination of negative CTE and positive CTE layers to produce an insert material for temperature- responsive thickness changeable textiles is accomplished in a continuous process of two materials layers released and bonded using, e. The laminated structure with adhesive bonding material at the interface is then roller compression pressed for good adhesion, for example.

An optional curing station to cure adhesive bonding material may be added as shown in Fig. While these metallic ribbons do not directly touch the human skin, a soft elastomer-like or gel-like coating may optionally be applied for extra protection of skin, and the ends of the ribbons may be folded-in or coated with a ball of polymer to avoid sharp edges as illustrated in Fig.

Such end spheres may be optionally coated with further friction-reducing material such as teflon or diamond-like carbon. By placing a series of this CTE mismatched bilayers between the inner and outer layers of thermally adaptive clothing, as the temperature drops, the bilayer flexes, pushing the inner and outer layers of textile apart and increasing the thermal insulance of the clothing. The data in Fig. The bilayers were assembled by joining using a thin adhesive layer and cured in a pre-flexed state.

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As can be seen on the graph paper 1 cm grid in Fig. This induces a very significant change in the thickness of a dual-pane fabrics if such Fig. The adhesive islands can be dispensed by e. The use of a random-position droplet dispensing device is not excluded. Adhesive island array can optionally or. One example method to assemble the two layers of fabrics is to utilize an array of flexible connecting strings or threads between the upper and the lower fabric pane see Fig. Use of spring configuration CTE mismatched bilayer structure for thermally adaptive dimension-changeable fabric.

The bottom part of the negative coefficients of thermal expansion CTE alloy spring structure is coated with a positive CTE polymer layer e. The polarity of deformation is dependent on what the curvature setting temperature is set, whether there is a pre-strain, whether the spring is left handed vs right handed, and other parameters. A dual pane fabric with a temperature responsive changeable thickness and insulation by using an array of spring inserts can help the wearer to feel more comfortable. For some applications, such as curtains and draperies, the thickness-changeable inserts of Figures 14, 16, 19, 22, 23 can be positioned vertically as shown in Fig.

Materials and methods for enhanced inter facial bonding and locking for CTE mismatch pairing. Some of the adhesive polymers, if made thin, can provide sufficient interfacial coupling and bond strength. As an alternative, mechanical locking structure can be utilized for such enhanced coupling as shown in Fig. The figure is an exemplary design of interface structure to enhance the coupling between the two layers. The surface of one or both layers e. The desired size of the re-entrant pores is in the range of 0.

Such pores can be prepared by lithographic masking and chemical etching, or ink jet printing of masking layer and chemical etching, or mechanical indentation with optional etching. For non periodic pores, simple sand blasting or emery paper polishing can be used to make the surface rough for enhanced adhesion.

The perforation dimension can be in the range of 0.

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The desirable width of the parallel grooves is in the range of 0. One of the techniques to pre-pattern metal surface to introduce nanostructured texture on metal or alloy surface is to utilize microwave etching at high temperature.

The nanotextured patterns in Fig. The RF power was adjusted between - watt level to produce various types of nanotexturing in Fig. Thickness-changeable inserts for thermally adaptable textiles with vertical aligned thermal expansion and contraction. For example, yet another embodiment for the thickness changeable dual pane fabric is to utilize a bow type structures as described in Fig. To address the issue of unequal matching of contact points in the temperature responsive bilayer tips between the upper fabric layer and the CTE mismatched bilayer, as well as between the lower fabric layer and the CTE mismatched bilayer, a bow structure may be employed.

Consider a CTE mismatched bilayer as in Fig. By adding a second, mirrored beam and pinning the two CTE mismatched bilayers with compliant hinges at either end as in Fig. Yet another embodiment of the temperature responsive fabric using the bow structure is to employ closed-cell configurations as in Fig.

The structure may then be used directly as a temperature responsive textile as an insert layer between upper and lower textiles in a consumer product, for example, for a jacket, coat, or back pack. Alternatively, the bow structures may be attached directly to upper and lower textiles via stitching, adhesive, or similar in an open-cell configuration as in Fig. These bow shaped or star-structured insert made of CTE mismatched bilayer composite material, either as a single leg bilayer as in Fig. The hexagon star structure array then expand on colder temperature for increased thermal insulation to make the person feel warmer and contract on hotter temperatures for reduced thermal insulation to make the person feel cooler, as described in Fig.

The desired spacing between neighboring bow structure elements in the dense packing arrangement is at most 2 cm, preferably at most 1 cm, more preferably at most 0. Such a retaining pocket can be made using a loosely structured fabric so as to minimize interference in terms of thermal management related to heat flow or air flow aspects.

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For tent or other type of applications e. The desired thickness span that the star structure can change is e. For winter sports, such as cross skiing jackets, the usable temperature range can be preset to extend to sub-zero temperatures. For summer jackets in hot weather, the temperature range can be extended toward higher temperature. Methods to impart a preset "bow -flat temperature" in the temperature- responsive bilayer. It is important to set the bow-flat temperature for proper service temperature range.

Once the CTE mismatch bilayer is made, it needs to be made flat at a specific desired temperature, e. Another structural configuration is the porosity changeable and air-flow adjustable smart fabrics activated solely by environmental temperature changes.

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The embodiments for pore opening in this case include the following examples;. The flaps can be rectangular, square, oval shape or any elongated shape.