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Recommendations for the structural use of reinforced and prestressed masonry, written in limit state terms. Covers design of elements subjected to vertical, lateral and shear forces and durability of metal components.

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Appendix gives design methods for walls with bed joint reinforcement to enhance lateral load resistance. I agree to receive commercial messages from IEEE GlobalSpec including product announcements and event invitations, as well as subscriptions and other promotional notifications. You may withdraw your consent at any time. Contact Preferences Notify me about educational webinars. What is this? We use the information you provided at registration to determine if specific webinars might be of interest to you. When a webinar seems like a good fit, we will send you an email to invite you to attend.

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What is Prestressed Concrete?

This section provides effective spans for a range of beams including simply supported or continuous beams, masonry cantilevers and deep beams. The first two are same as the UK values contained in BS The values contained in this table are exactly the same as those contained in Tables 9 and 10 of BS , although an additional support case for spanning in two directions - has been added; the equations used to determine the clear distance between the supports are also those used in BS Sections 5.

The approach adopted for shear walls is for the elastic stiffness of the walls, including any flanges, to be taken as the wall stiffness. For walls higher than twice their length, the effect of shear deformations on the stiffness are neglected. Detailed information on the length of intersecting walls which may be considered to act as a flange is included, as are limiting values for openings.


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A degree of load redistribution is allowed. There is no direct equivalent to this section in BS Finally, guidance on designing walls subjected to lateral loading is contained in clause 5.

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The requirement is that the resistance of masonry walls to vertical loading be based on the geometry of the wall, the effect of the applied eccentricities and the material properties of the masonry. The standard assumptions are made as to the conditions present in the wall - namely that plane sections remain plane and that the tensile strength of masonry perpendicular to bed joints is zero. Detailed design needs to be carried out to determine the reduction factors for slenderness and eccentricity.

In addition, the clause covering walls subject to concentrated loads requires detailed calculations to be made to determine the resistance of the wall. A certain amount of the approach used in this area is the similar to the current UK approach, but it requires considerably more calculation than the BS clause 34 approach. Clause 6. This uses a similar approach to that used in BS The method used to determine the resistance of a wall to the loads is essentially the UK approach. Two methods are given to determine the favourable effect of the vertical stress when a vertical load is present.

Information is also provided for lateral resistance provided by walls arching between supports - in clause 6. Reference is made to the relevant clauses to be used when designing:? Section 6. This section gives three methods by which the walls may be verified. These are given in: Clause 6. It is based on taking a combination of the following into account: differential movement between the connected structural members, typically faced wall and backing leaf, e. An equation is provided to determine the minimum number of wall ties per unit area. A note to this clause, 6. The assumptions used in the design process are included at the start of this section.

It requires that, when a compression zone contains both masonry and concrete infill, the compressive strength should be calculated using a stress block based on the compressive strength of the weakest material. However, it is not currently used in the UK. Deflections that might damage partitions, finishings including added materials or technical equipment, or might impair water-tightness should be checked.


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  7. The serviceability of masonry members should not be unacceptably impaired by the behaviour of other structural elements, such as deformations of floors or walls. However, for reinforced and pre-stressed members, the guidance provided is of a similar nature to the information above - there are no deflection limits given, unlike BS , where clause 7. This includes the minimum strength of mortar to be used with masonry reinforced with bars and masonry reinforced with prefabricated bedjoint reinforcement.

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    For the latter case, the mortar should be M2. It should be noted that, in UK terms, that means that the mortar needs to be designation iii M4 or better; the use of a designation iv mortar - a 1: 2: 9 CLS mortar mix M2 - would not be allowed. Additional requirements are made for the minimum area of a load-bearing wall - 0.


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    The bonding of masonry is referred to, with the requirement that masonry units in an unreinforced masonry wall are overlapped on alternate courses so that the wall acts as a single structural element; this is the same as is given in clause 3. In unreinforced masonry this requirement is defined more closely, with masonry units less than or equal to a height of mm having to be overlapped by a length equal to at least 0,4 times the height of the unit or 40mm, whichever is the greater; with units greater than mm high, the overlap should be the greater of 0,2 times the height of the unit or mm.

    Further provision is made for the cases where the flexural strength of the masonry is utilised and at corners or junctions. The provision for perpend joints, given clause 8. However, in reinforced masonry subject to bending and shear across the joints, the perpend joints should be fully filled with mortar.

    The width of mortar joints is referred to in clause 8. Section 8. Most of this clause sets out the requirements in a prescriptive manner, for example requiring that reinforcing steel in masonry designed as a bending member should be provided over a support where the masonry is continuous, whether the beam has been designed as continuous or not. The clause covers:? While the provisions given in EN are not exactly the same as those contained in BS , they are very similar. The clauses in this section are generally prescriptive and cover:?

    The clause covering the connection of walls, 8. It also includes, in a note, a value for the minimum number of ties to be used. A double leaf wall - known more commonly in the UK as a collar-jointed wall - states that the wall ties used to connect the two leaves together should be calculated according to 6. As with the cavity wall ties, this is in a note. A similar table, Table 8.

    BS and -3 do not cover chasing in a particularly detailed way, so these provisions are new. Reference is made to EN for guidance on this. Further guidance is given on aspects relating to the loading of masonry after construction. Clearly, BS — Parts 1 and Part 3, in particular — provide considerable information on the execution of masonry.

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    Their so far limited input at this stage is included in Appendix C. EN Structural fire design 3. It only identifies differences from - or supplements to - normal temperature design, and deals only with passive methods of fire protection - active methods are not covered. This Part covers these aspects in a prescriptive, rather than theoretical, way. Specifically, Part applies to masonry structures which, for reasons of general fire safety, are required to fulfil certain functions when exposed to fire, in terms of: avoiding premature collapse of the structure - that is, a load bearing function; and limiting fire spread flames, hot gases, excessive heat beyond designated areas - that is, performing a separating function Part gives principles and application rules for designing structures for specified requirements in respect of these functions and levels of performance.

    It applies to structures, or parts of structures, that are within the scope of EN and EN and are designed accordingly.

    However, it does not cover reinforced masonry or masonry built with Natural Stone units to EN Part covers the structural fire design of the following walls: non-load bearing internal walls; non-load bearing external walls; load bearing internal walls with separating or non-separating functions; and load bearing external walls with separating or non-separating functions. This means that, where compartmentation is required, the elements forming the boundaries of the fire compartment - including the joints - must be designed and constructed in such a way that they maintain their separating function during the relevant fire exposure.

    Where the means of protection - or the design criteria for separating elements - requires consideration of the deformation of the load bearing structure, deformation criteria shall be applied. However, consideration of the deformation of the load bearing structure is not necessary when the separating elements have only a nominal fire exposure.

    In circumstances where there is a parametric fire exposure, the load-bearing function is satisfied when collapse is prevented for the complete duration of the fire, including the decay phase, or for a prescribed period of time. Under these circumstances, the separating function, with respect to insulation, is satisfied when the following criteria are met: the mean temperature rise over the whole of the non-exposed surface does not exceed K and the maximum temperature rise of that surface at any point does not exceed K, at the time of the maximum gas temperature, the mean temperature rise over the whole of the non-exposed surface does not exceed K, and the maximum temperature rise at any point of that surface does not exceed K during the decay phase of the fire or up to a required period of time.

    The value of the emissivity of a masonry surface, em, is contained in a note to clause 2. Finally, in situations where a global structural analysis of the fire is carried out, the relevant failure mode in fire exposure, the temperature-dependent material properties and member stiffness, the effects of thermal expansions and deformations indirect fire actions need to be taken into account.